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<meta property="og:description" content="Convenient wrapper around grepl() to match a pattern: x %like% pattern. It always returns a logical vector and is always case-insensitive (use x %like_case% pattern for case-sensitive matching). Also, pattern can be as long as x to compare items of each index in both vectors, or they both can have the same length to iterate over all cases." />
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<h1>Vectorised Pattern Matching with Keyboard Shortcut</h1>
<small class="dont-index">Source: <a href='https://github.com/msberends/AMR/blob/main/R/like.R'><code>R/like.R</code></a></small>
<div class="hidden name"><code>like.Rd</code></div>
</div>
<div class="ref-description">
<p>Convenient wrapper around <code><a href='https://rdrr.io/r/base/grep.html'>grepl()</a></code> to match a pattern: <code>x %like% pattern</code>. It always returns a <code><a href='https://rdrr.io/r/base/logical.html'>logical</a></code> vector and is always case-insensitive (use <code>x %like_case% pattern</code> for case-sensitive matching). Also, <code>pattern</code> can be as long as <code>x</code> to compare items of each index in both vectors, or they both can have the same length to iterate over all cases.</p>
</div>
<div class="ref-usage sourceCode"><pre class='sourceCode r'><code><span class='fu'>like</span><span class='op'>(</span><span class='va'>x</span>, <span class='va'>pattern</span>, ignore.case <span class='op'>=</span> <span class='cn'>TRUE</span><span class='op'>)</span>
<span class='va'>x</span> <span class='op'>%like%</span> <span class='va'>pattern</span>
<span class='va'>x</span> <span class='op'>%unlike%</span> <span class='va'>pattern</span>
<span class='va'>x</span> <span class='op'>%like_case%</span> <span class='va'>pattern</span>
<span class='va'>x</span> <span class='op'>%unlike_case%</span> <span class='va'>pattern</span></code></pre></div>
<h2 class="hasAnchor" id="arguments"><a class="anchor" href="#arguments"></a>Arguments</h2>
<table class="ref-arguments">
<colgroup><col class="name" /><col class="desc" /></colgroup>
<tr>
<th>x</th>
<td><p>a <a href='https://rdrr.io/r/base/character.html'>character</a> vector where matches are sought, or an object which can be coerced by <code><a href='https://rdrr.io/r/base/character.html'>as.character()</a></code> to a <a href='https://rdrr.io/r/base/character.html'>character</a> vector.</p></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>pattern</th>
<td><p>a <a href='https://rdrr.io/r/base/character.html'>character</a> vector containing regular expressions (or a <a href='https://rdrr.io/r/base/character.html'>character</a> string for <code>fixed = TRUE</code>) to be matched in the given <a href='https://rdrr.io/r/base/character.html'>character</a> vector. Coerced by <code><a href='https://rdrr.io/r/base/character.html'>as.character()</a></code> to a <a href='https://rdrr.io/r/base/character.html'>character</a> string if possible.</p></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>ignore.case</th>
<td><p>if <code>FALSE</code>, the pattern matching is <em>case sensitive</em> and if <code>TRUE</code>, case is ignored during matching.</p></td>
</tr>
</table>
<h2 class="hasAnchor" id="source"><a class="anchor" href="#source"></a>Source</h2>
<p>Idea from the <a href='https://github.com/Rdatatable/data.table/blob/ec1259af1bf13fc0c96a1d3f9e84d55d8106a9a4/R/like.R'><code>like</code> function from the <code>data.table</code> package</a>, although altered as explained in <em>Details</em>.</p>
<h2 class="hasAnchor" id="value"><a class="anchor" href="#value"></a>Value</h2>
<p>A <a href='https://rdrr.io/r/base/logical.html'>logical</a> vector</p>
<h2 class="hasAnchor" id="details"><a class="anchor" href="#details"></a>Details</h2>
<p>These <code>like()</code> and <code>%like%</code>/<code>%unlike%</code> functions:</p><ul>
<li><p>Are case-insensitive (use <code>%like_case%</code>/<code>%unlike_case%</code> for case-sensitive matching)</p></li>
<li><p>Support multiple patterns</p></li>
<li><p>Check if <code>pattern</code> is a valid regular expression and sets <code>fixed = TRUE</code> if not, to greatly improve speed (vectorised over <code>pattern</code>)</p></li>
<li><p>Always use compatibility with Perl unless <code>fixed = TRUE</code>, to greatly improve speed</p></li>
</ul>
<p>Using RStudio? The <code>%like%</code>/<code>%unlike%</code> functions can also be directly inserted in your code from the Addins menu and can have its own keyboard shortcut like <code>Shift+Ctrl+L</code> or <code>Shift+Cmd+L</code> (see menu <code>Tools</code> &gt; <code>Modify Keyboard Shortcuts...</code>). If you keep pressing your shortcut, the inserted text will be iterated over <code>%like%</code> -&gt; <code>%unlike%</code> -&gt; <code>%like_case%</code> -&gt; <code>%unlike_case%</code>.</p>
<h2 class="hasAnchor" id="stable-lifecycle"><a class="anchor" href="#stable-lifecycle"></a>Stable Lifecycle</h2>
<p><img src='figures/lifecycle_stable.svg' style=margin-bottom:5px /> <br />
The <a href='lifecycle.html'>lifecycle</a> of this function is <strong>stable</strong>. In a stable function, major changes are unlikely. This means that the unlying code will generally evolve by adding new arguments; removing arguments or changing the meaning of existing arguments will be avoided.</p>
<p>If the unlying code needs breaking changes, they will occur gradually. For example, a argument will be deprecated and first continue to work, but will emit an message informing you of the change. Next, typically after at least one newly released version on CRAN, the message will be transformed to an error.</p>
<h2 class="hasAnchor" id="read-more-on-our-website-"><a class="anchor" href="#read-more-on-our-website-"></a>Read more on Our Website!</h2>
<p>On our website <a href='https://msberends.github.io/AMR/'>https://msberends.github.io/AMR/</a> you can find <a href='https://msberends.github.io/AMR/articles/AMR.html'>a comprehensive tutorial</a> about how to conduct AMR data analysis, the <a href='https://msberends.github.io/AMR/reference/'>complete documentation of all functions</a> and <a href='https://msberends.github.io/AMR/articles/WHONET.html'>an example analysis using WHONET data</a>.</p>
<h2 class="hasAnchor" id="see-also"><a class="anchor" href="#see-also"></a>See also</h2>
<div class='dont-index'><p><code><a href='https://rdrr.io/r/base/grep.html'>grepl()</a></code></p></div>
<h2 class="hasAnchor" id="examples"><a class="anchor" href="#examples"></a>Examples</h2>
<div class="ref-examples sourceCode"><pre class='sourceCode r'><code><span class='va'>a</span> <span class='op'>&lt;-</span> <span class='st'>"This is a test"</span>
<span class='va'>b</span> <span class='op'>&lt;-</span> <span class='st'>"TEST"</span>
<span class='va'>a</span> <span class='op'>%like%</span> <span class='va'>b</span>
<span class='co'>#&gt; TRUE</span>
<span class='va'>b</span> <span class='op'>%like%</span> <span class='va'>a</span>
<span class='co'>#&gt; FALSE</span>
<span class='co'># also supports multiple patterns</span>
<span class='va'>a</span> <span class='op'>&lt;-</span> <span class='fu'><a href='https://rdrr.io/r/base/c.html'>c</a></span><span class='op'>(</span><span class='st'>"Test case"</span>, <span class='st'>"Something different"</span>, <span class='st'>"Yet another thing"</span><span class='op'>)</span>
<span class='va'>b</span> <span class='op'>&lt;-</span> <span class='fu'><a href='https://rdrr.io/r/base/c.html'>c</a></span><span class='op'>(</span> <span class='st'>"case"</span>, <span class='st'>"diff"</span>, <span class='st'>"yet"</span><span class='op'>)</span>
<span class='va'>a</span> <span class='op'>%like%</span> <span class='va'>b</span>
<span class='co'>#&gt; TRUE TRUE TRUE</span>
<span class='va'>a</span> <span class='op'>%unlike%</span> <span class='va'>b</span>
<span class='co'>#&gt; FALSE FALSE FALSE</span>
<span class='va'>a</span><span class='op'>[</span><span class='fl'>1</span><span class='op'>]</span> <span class='op'>%like%</span> <span class='va'>b</span>
<span class='co'>#&gt; TRUE FALSE FALSE</span>
<span class='va'>a</span> <span class='op'>%like%</span> <span class='va'>b</span><span class='op'>[</span><span class='fl'>1</span><span class='op'>]</span>
<span class='co'>#&gt; TRUE FALSE FALSE</span>
<span class='co'># get isolates whose name start with 'Ent' or 'ent'</span>
<span class='va'>example_isolates</span><span class='op'>[</span><span class='fu'><a href='https://rdrr.io/r/base/which.html'>which</a></span><span class='op'>(</span><span class='fu'><a href='mo_property.html'>mo_name</a></span><span class='op'>(</span><span class='va'>example_isolates</span><span class='op'>$</span><span class='va'>mo</span><span class='op'>)</span> <span class='op'>%like%</span> <span class='st'>"^ent"</span><span class='op'>)</span>, <span class='op'>]</span>
<span class='co'># \donttest{</span>
<span class='co'># faster way, only works in R 3.2 and later:</span>
<span class='va'>example_isolates</span><span class='op'>[</span><span class='fu'><a href='https://rdrr.io/r/base/which.html'>which</a></span><span class='op'>(</span><span class='fu'><a href='mo_property.html'>mo_name</a></span><span class='op'>(</span><span class='op'>)</span> <span class='op'>%like%</span> <span class='st'>"^ent"</span><span class='op'>)</span>, <span class='op'>]</span>
<span class='kw'>if</span> <span class='op'>(</span><span class='kw'><a href='https://rdrr.io/r/base/library.html'>require</a></span><span class='op'>(</span><span class='st'><a href='https://dplyr.tidyverse.org'>"dplyr"</a></span><span class='op'>)</span><span class='op'>)</span> <span class='op'>{</span>
<span class='va'>example_isolates</span> <span class='op'>%&gt;%</span>
<span class='fu'><a href='https://dplyr.tidyverse.org/reference/filter.html'>filter</a></span><span class='op'>(</span><span class='fu'><a href='mo_property.html'>mo_name</a></span><span class='op'>(</span><span class='op'>)</span> <span class='op'>%like%</span> <span class='st'>"^ent"</span><span class='op'>)</span>
<span class='op'>}</span>
<span class='co'># }</span>
</code></pre></div>
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